Automotive

How To Select A Tractor And Its Important Components

The selection of tractors and tractor components depends on various factors.

  1. Landholding: Under a single cropping pattern, it is normally recommended to consider 1 hp for every 2 hectares of land. In other words, 1 tractor 20-25 hp is suitable for a 40-hectare farm.
  2. Cropping pattern: Generally, 1.5 hectares per hp has been recommended where adequate irrigation facilities are available, and more than 1 crop is taken. So a 30-36 hp tractor is suitable for 40 hectares of land.
  3. Soil condition: A tractor with less wheelbase, higher ground clearance, and low overall weight may work successfully in lighter soils but will not be able to give sufficient depth in black cotton soils
  4. Climatic condition: For very hot locations and desert areas, air-cooled engines are preferred over water-cooled engines. Similarly, higher altitude air-cooled engines are preferred because water-cooled engines are liable to freeze at high altitudes.
  5. Repair facilities: It should be assured that the tractor to be purchased has a dealer at a nearby place with all the technical skills for repair and maintenance of the machine.
  6. Running cost: Tractors with less specific diesel consumption should be favored over others so that the running cost may be less.
  7. Initial cost and resale value: While maintaining the resale value, in a sense, the initial cost should not be very high; the otherwise higher amount of interest has to be paid. New Holland 3600 is one of the ideal tractors in the 50 HP category.

Components

  • IC engine

Internal combustion of suitable horsepower works as a prime mover in a tractor. Engines varying from 8 to 200 hp are suitable for agricultural purposes. In India, four-wheel tractors for agricultural functions operate on 25-80 hp. Walking-type tractors are equipped with 8-12 hp engines.

  • Clutch

A Clutch is a device which operates to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and drive wheels. Clutch transfers power by means of friction between driving members and driven members.

  • Transmission gears

The tractor runs at high speed, but the rear wheel of the tractor needs power at low speed and high torque. That’s why it becomes necessary to reduce the engine speed and increase the torque available at the rear wheel of the tractor.

  • Differential unit

A differential unit is a unique arrangement of gears to allow one of the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than the other. While turning the tractor on a curved track, the inner wheel has to travel a lesser distance than the outward wheel. The inner wheel needs lesser power than the outer wheel. This condition meets through a  differential unit, which permits one of the rear wheels of the tractor to move faster than the other at a turning point.

Various Other Components

 

  • Final drive

The final drive is a gear reduction unit in the power trains between differentials and drives wheels. The final drive transmits the power ultimately to the rear axle and the wheels. The tractor rear wheels are not directly connected to the half shafts. But the drive is carried through a pair of spur gears. The individual half shaft terminates in a small gear that links with a large gear called bull gear. The bull gear is scaled on a shaft, taking the tractor rear wheel. The machine for final speed reduction, suitable for tractor rear wheels, is known as the final drive mechanism. This gives better experience in the farm during farming.

  • Steering mechanism

The system governing the angular movement of the front wheels of a tractor is the steering system. This system minimizes the actions of the operator in turning the front wheels with the application of leverages. The different components of the steering system are i)steering wheel ii) steering shaft iii)steering gear iv) drag link v)steering arm vii) tie rod viii) kingpin

When the operator on the tractor rotates the steering wheel, the movement goes through the steering shaft to the angular motion of the pitman’s arm through a set of gears. The angular movement of the pitman’s arm move to the steering arm through drag link and tie rods. Steering arms are keyed to the individual kingpins, which are an integral part of the stub axle on which wheels are mounted. The movement of the steering arm impacts the movement of the front wheel.

  • Hydraulic control system

It is an instrument in a tractor to raise, hold or lower the mounted implement by hydraulic means. All tractors have hydraulic control system for operating the three-point hitch of the tractor. The hydraulic system works on PASCAL’s Law which states that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all directions.

  • Brakes

The brake operates to stop or slow down the movement of the tractor. It is mounted on the axle and driven by two independent pedals. Each pedal works independently to assist the turning of the tractor during fieldwork or locked together by means of a lock.

  • Power take-off

It is a part of the tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield, and a cover. The shaft is externally splined to transfer torsional power to another machine. A rigid guard fitted on a tractor covers the power-take-off shaft as a safety device. The shield is a power take-off shield. As per standards, PTO speed is 540+ 10 rpm when operating under load. In order to operate a 1000 rpm PTO drive machine, a new standard will soon be developed. Eicher 368 can be used for multiple operations with equipment attached to its PTO.

For more information related to the tractor, keep in touch with us. 

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