Brain cancer is a common form of cancer that occurs in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the central nervous system. Brain cancer can occur at any age, but it is most common in adults. The most common types of brain and spinal cord cancers are:
Gliomas are cancers of the glial cells that support and protect nerve cells. These tumors are usually malignant, meaning they can spread to other parts of the body. They can be either primary or secondary.
Primary gliomas begin in the brain, while secondary gliomas start elsewhere in the body and then spread to the brain. Secondary gliomas are also known as “metastatic” or “secondary” tumors because they have spread from another part of the body. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an example of a primary tumor. Astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma are examples of secondary tumors.
Ependymoma is a tumor that grows in the cerebrospinal fluid-containing areas of the brain or spinal cord.
The tumors can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on how aggressive they are. Low-grade ependymomas generally grow slower and are more treatable than high-grade ones.
Ependymomas can occur at any age, but they’re most common in children and young adults.
Medulloblastoma is a type of cancer that begins in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls motor skills and balance. It’s most common in children but can also strike adults. Medulloblastomas grow quickly and tend to spread throughout the brain.
The first sign of medulloblastoma is usually a headache or vomiting. Other symptoms can include:
-Behavior changes (like irritability or lethargy)
A meningioma is a tumor that forms on the meninges, which are the membranes that cover your brain and spinal cord. The tumor can grow slowly over time or quickly, depending on its location, size, and type.
Meningiomas are usually found in middle age or older adults, but they can occur at any age. They’re more common in women than in men, although this isn’t always the case.
Oligodendrogliomas are a type of brain tumor that grows in the brain and spinal cord. They’re usually found in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, or occipital lobe.
Oligodendrogliomas are slow-growing tumors and are typically not fatal. They tend to occur in people between the ages of 20 and 60—and they tend to occur more often in men than women.
Doctors often use MRI scans to diagnose oligodendrogliomas. It’s important to note that these tumors can sometimes look like other types of brain tumors, so if you experience symptoms like headaches or numbness, it’s important to see your doctor as soon as possible so they can be sure what kind of tumor you have and start treatment right away.
.Symptoms of brain cancer
1. Tingling or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one or both sides of the body.
2. Headaches that are new and different from any headaches you have had before.
3. Dizziness, balance problems, or loss of coordination that is not caused by a medication you take or by an injury.
4. Trouble swallowing or talking clearly due to weakness in your muscles used for speech or swallowing (facial muscles).
5. Pain in your eyes (optic neuritis) with vision changes such as blurred vision and double vision.
6. Unusual sensitivity to light (photophobia) with headaches that are worse when exposed to light (photophobia).
7. Ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, or problems understanding speech even when using hearing aids if you have had a previous hearing test showing no problem before symptoms started appearing later on in life
8. Seizures (fits) caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain which may be preceded by an aura – an unusual experience such as seeing flashing lights or smelling unusual odors just before the seizure occurs
.Treatment of brain cancer
The treatment of a brain tumor depends on the type of tumor and its location. The most common types of brain tumors are:
-Gliomas: These tumors are found in the brain or spine, and are composed of abnormal cells that grow rapidly. They can be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Gliomas account for about 30% of all primary brain tumors in adults.
-Meningiomas: These tumors are found in the meninges, which are membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas account for about 15% of all primary brain tumors in adults.
-Acoustic neuromas: These tumors form near cranial nerves VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve) and IX (the glossopharyngeal nerve), which carry information from the inner ear to the brainstem. Acoustic neuromas account for about 2% of all primary brain tumors in adults.
-Chordomas: These tumors form from cells that normally help develop bones during embryonic development, so they often occur at sites where bones meet other bones or ligaments (such as between vertebrae). Chordomas account for less than 1% of all primary brain
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